In this article, we will write about the boiler for you. In general, we are writing to you on the site of the Emergency Boiler Repair Website(emergencyplumb.co.uk), from the application of the boiler to the classification of the boiler and the parts of the boiler. To know what a boiler is? It is necessary to get acquainted with the operation of boilers and types of boilers, including water pipe boilers, and to know its boiler system and specifications. So if you are interested in these topics, join us and follow us.
This article explores the concept of the boiler and its various components. The boiler is one of the most important components of a power plant and is widely used in mechanical engineering. In the following, the types of boilers or boilers are introduced according to various criteria.
What is a boiler?
As mentioned, a boiler is a set of pipes in which water or other fluids are heated and eventually steam or water vapor is produced. This process requires energy and heat, which can be provided by the combustion of fuels, electricity or nuclear energy. The boiler is also one of the main components of the steam power plant and, along with the turbine, pump and other turbochargers play a key role in generating power at the plant.
In general, a boiler system consists of three parts. The first part shows the power supply system, the second part is the steam system and the third part is the fuel system.
In more detail, the main components of the boiler system can be included:
- Feedwater Heater
- Feed Pump
Different components of a boiler
In addition to the above, a large number of controllers are present in the boiler flow path, which is responsible for displaying water and steam flow, fuel flow, and the percentage of the chemical composition of fuel and air. Note that the power supply system consists of two sources.
Water supply system
In general, the water supply system provides the water needed for the set and automatically adjusts this water to achieve sufficient steam.
Water heaters feed
The feedwater heaters use the extra heat and steam output to preheat the boiler feed water. Boiler feedwater preheating increases the efficiency of the set by reducing the energy required to convert water to steam.
power supply water and Boiler
Boiler feedwater usually contains dissolved oxygen, which is caused by a leak inside the condenser and pump. This oxygen causes a lot of corrosion and damage in different parts of the boiler. The deaerator actually removes oxygen from the solution mechanically by passing steam through the feedwater heater.
In fact, the lower the oxygen content of the water, the more economical it is to use the condensate system.
The latest economizer is a member of the water supply system
The latest member of the boiler water supply system is the economizer. An economizer is a great tool for increasing system performance. This economizer receives heat from the gas at the outlet and heats the steam using it. This increases the efficiency of the boiler. The feedwater enters the boiler through an economizer and moves in the form of steam to the Steam Drum.
In general, the drum is responsible for separating water and steam from each other. The lower drum is called the mud drum. The drum forms a chamber at the bottom of the boiler that regulates the water and collects sediments or corrosion products.
The steam system is responsible for heating the water and producing steam from the feed water. In addition, the steam system is responsible for controlling the amount of steam produced in the boiler. The produced steam eventually passes through a piping system.
The fuel system includes all the tools and equipment that provide the fuel needed to produce the energy needed by the complex. The tools used in this system depend on the type of fuel the system uses.
Categorization of boilers
One of these criteria is the classification of boilers based on the passage of hot water and gas. Another type of divider for boilers is their classification based on the water circulation path.
Categorization based on the relative path of hot water and gas passage
This classification is the most important type of classification in a boiler.
water boiler in pipe or water tube
Note that water boilers in the pipe also have different types depending on the direction of the pipes. The following figure shows an example of a water tube.
The most common types of boilers are firewall boilers and water-cooled boilers.
1- In terms of boiler application location:
Electricity generation, transportation (locomotive), heating, cooking materials, sterilizing materials and …
2- In terms of the working pressure of the boiler:
Low to medium pressure, high pressure and supercritical pressures.
The numerical values for this category vary depending on the type of boiler and their family.
3- Depending on the place of steam production (inside the pipes or outside the pipes):
To two categories of water tube and fire tube
Boiler or boiler classification based on application
- Residential boilers
- Portable boilers
- Locomotive boilers
- Marine boilers
Categorization based on how the boilers are located
The following figures show a horizontal, vertical and sloping, respectively.
- horizontal boiler
- vertical boiler
- Sloping boiler
classification based on furnace location
There is another type of boiler where the furnace is located outside the shell.
- classification is based on steam pressure: As mentioned, boilers are responsible for producing hot water or hot water vapor. The first category is low-pressure boilers and the second category includes medium pressure boilers. The third category is the high-pressure boilers.
- low-pressure: Boilers that produce steam at a pressure range of 20-15 bar are classified as “Low-Pressure Boilers”.
- medium pressure: A Medium Pressure is a boiler whose steam pressure changes between 20 and 80 times.
- a high-pressure
- under critical
- supercritical: These boilers produce steam at a pressure higher than the critical pressure.
DIN standard and ASME standards are also among the most important standards for making in the world.
Buying a boiler (choosing )
When buying, you must first pay attention to the desired capacity and working pressure, and after selecting the type from the catalog of the manufacturer of the boiler, select the desired model.
Season maintenance and repair program:
- With all the safety tips in mind, open the front and side shutters and fully inspect the inside of the boiler for sediment and rust.
- One of the measures that increase the life and its efficiency is the cleaning process of fire extinguishers.
The cleaning time of the pipe is the same as the user.
- It should be noted that in any case, the interval between cleanings should not exceed three months.
- Use manholes to check the amount of sediment inside the boiler.
- If there is soot in the pipe 2 and pass 3, clean with special brushes. Check the condition of the furnace.
- Identify leaks in front and rear networks using cross-sectional water lifts
- If the burner is working properly, the furnace must be completely clean, so if there is soot on one side of the furnace wall, it indicates that the burner is not adjusted.
- Make sure the pressurizers, fountains, and manometers are working properly.
- If necessary, start the acid washing process (this is mainly included in the annual program).
Tips on the performance and maintenance of boilers
Here are some tips on boilers that you should include in your maintenance plan. It should be noted that the implementation of these items is low cost or free.
1. Repair contractors should always perform a thorough analysis of the system. The analysis should include analysis of furnace temperature, chimney size, air/fuel ratio, chimney temperature, combustion air regulation, amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the chimney pipe, and calibration control.
2. Setting and repairing or measuring the required controls and settings.
3. Increasing the number of mineral deposits inside the reduces efficiency and may cause problems and leaks. Proper chemical treatment of water reduces the number of mineral deposits, controls the pH of distilled water and prevents decay.
4. Chimney gas temperature should not be more than 150 degrees above the steam or water temperature. Remove the fire-side pipes from the soot. If necessary, install a thermometer for the chimney.
5. Check the insulation and cover of the boiler to prevent leakage; repair and insulate if necessary.
6. Replace the boiler door washers if they leak.
7. Proper air consumption ensures combustion, maximum safety as well as efficiency. Combustion air consumption is related to burner performance.
8. If your boilers are large, a daily report of their performance, including pressure chart, temperature, carbon dioxide, oxygen, steam or gas fluids, and other data, can be helpful. Changes to the chart may indicate the need to clean the pipe and nozzle, pressure and connection settings, air/fuel settings, or draft regulations.
9. Remove gas spark plugs and install AC switches.
10. In steam systems, check the steam valves regularly during system operation.
boiler repair in London
London is the capital of England and Britain. It is the largest and most populous city in the United Kingdom. London also has the largest urban area in Europe, located on the banks of the River Thames. London is 2,000 years old. As a result, the date of its construction dates back to ancient Rome. Also one of the most important residential centers in London is the ancient city of London, which today houses two million people. So if you live in London, you can contact us for all your plumbing services.
We can also do all the work related to repairing and maintaining. So contact us for any of the services related to the repair and maintenance of the boiler.